A blockchain is a digital record of transactions. The name comes from its structure, in which individual records, called blocks, are linked together in single list, called a chain. Blockchains are used for recording transactions made with cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, and have many other applications.

A blockchain, originally block chain, is a growing list of records, called blocks, that are linked using cryptography. By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of the data. It is an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way

How does a block chain work?
A Blockchain is a type of diary or spreadsheet containing information about transactions. Each transaction generates a hash. Each block refers to the previous block and together make the Blockchain. A Blockchain is effective as it is spread over many computers, each of which have a copy of the Blockchain.

Cross- blockchain transactions
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Blockchains offer an immutable, decentralized, and encrypted mechanism for transaction processing. Nonetheless, realized by its first widely-used application Bitcoin , blockchain was not originally designed for OLTP workloads; instead, it aimed to offer an autonomous

Factors Affecting Implementation of Blockchain in Retail Market in Malaysia
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Certain types of blockchains were made and developed for various purposes. Despite the development of cohort systems, the blockchain needs more development from the perspective of Malaysia. In addition, blockchain is the only cryptographic block currency that

Blockchainpowered collaboration in heterogeneous swarms of robots
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One of the key challenges in the collaboration within heterogeneous multi-robot systems is the optimization of the amount and type of data to be shared between robots with different sensing capabilities and computational resources. In this paper, we present a novel Blockchain a decentralized validation protocol in which no one individual entity completely controls the process or information, is labeled both a techno tour de force and a fraud. Austrian School researchers view the blockchain application Bitcoin as an ideal example of

Blockchain technology: Business, strategy, the environment, and sustainability
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Blockchain technology, a disruptive innovation based on advances in information and computing, continues to experience rapidly increasing growth. This foundational disruptive technology does not utilize a central trusted agent for coordination but nonetheless permits aTo the editors: Since the first case was diagnosed in Wuhan, China in late 201 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally at an unprecedented rate, and was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 1 2020 . The fatality rate of COVID-19 is 2% 5%, and

Management, Governance and Value Creation in a Blockchain Consortium
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1 Carsten Sørensen is the accepting senior editor for this article. 2 This research has been funded by Innosuisse (a Swiss government agency) as part of the Blockchain Car Dossier project. This project is a collaborative effort, and many of the ideas presented in this article

Bitcoin and Blockchain Technology
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A ledger can be defined as a book of permanent record. With modern information technology, data have become economic resources if they are associated with exclusive owners and put into a ledger. It is shown in Chaps. 3 and 4 that IoT data can be transformed The initial and the most popular application of Blockchain was cryptocurrency. Blockchain technology is likely to revolutionize various domains by providing a secure and fast end-to- end users transaction without the intervention of any trusted third party or central authorities This paper attempts to explain a solution to tackle the problem of counterfeit medicines in India by proposing a resilient electronic health networks using blockchain . The distribution and consumption of fake medicines take thousands of lives every year. There are no

Blockchain and Internet of Things in Higher Education
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Building the innovative blockchainbased architecture across the Internet of Things (IoT) platform for the education system could be an enticing mechanism to boost communication efficiency within the 5 G network. Wireless networking would have been the main research

Digital Business Strategies in Blockchain Ecosystems
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The newest technologies in blockchain environment have been transforming traditional business operations significantly in the last several years. Blockchain technologies are referred to as the decentralized integration of computers and distributed networks that are

Towards building a blockchain framework for IoT
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Blockchain is a very promising technology that spans many use cases other than cryptocurrencies. For example, its implementation in the Internet of Things (IoT) based networks is still unclear and demands further research. This is mainly due to the limited

Smart Logistics: Blockchain trends and applications.
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The recent increase of new technologies and their involvement into all management processes call into question the smart logistics current models, in which massive amounts of data is collected and controlled. Smart Logistics is considered as fundamental pillar of the With the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) industries, data or information security has become one of the critical issues. Nowadays, Blockchain technology is widely using for improving data security. It is a tool for the individual and organization to Blockchain is an immutable, encrypted, distributed ledger technology. While initially devised for and most commonly referenced with cryptocurrencies, there are an increasing number of applications outside finance, many of which are relevant to medical imaging. In this paper

Distributed IoT attestation via blockchain (extended version)
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The growing number and nature of Internet of Things (IoT) devices makes these resource- constrained appliances particularly vulnerable and increasingly impactful in their exploitation. Current estimates for the number of connected things commonly reach the Today, supply chain finance is a very important topic. Traditional supply chains rely on banks to support the related financing activities and services. With the emergence of blockchain technology, more and more companies in different industries have considered

Going from bad to worse: from internet voting to blockchain voting
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Voters are understandably concerned about election security. News reports of possible election interference by foreign powers, of unauthorized voting, of voter disenfranchisement, and of technological failures call into question the integrity of elections worldwide. This

Blockchain and the institutional complexity: An extended institutional approach
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From a modern institutional economics viewpoint, blockchain is an institutional technology that minimizes transaction costs and greatly reduces intermediation. Through an analysis of blockchain I demonstrate the possibilities of extended institutional approach a newThere is a wealth of information, hype around, and research into blockchains disruptiveand transformativepotential concerning every industry. However, there is an absence of scholarly attention given to identifying and analyzing the political premises andDigital transformation is continuously changing ecosystems, which also forces established companies to re-evaluate their value proposition. However, only transformations of single ecosystems have been studied. Therefore, this work targets to examine the similarities of

A Decentralized Blockchain with High Throughput and Fast Confirmation
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This paper presents Conflux, a scalable and decentralized blockchain system with high throughput and fast confirmation. Conflux operates with a novel consensus protocol which optimistically processes concurrent blocks without discarding any as forks and adaptively Network intrusions are a big threat to network and system assets, which have become more complex to date. To enhance the detection performance, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) are adopted by many organizations to protect their resources. However

Blockchain technology secures robot swarms: A comparison of consensus protocols and their resilience to Byzantine robots
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Consensus achievement is a crucial capability for robot swarms, for example, for path selection, spatial aggregation, or collective sensing. However, the presence of malfunctioning and malicious robots (Byzantine robots) can make it impossible to achieve Clinical trials (CTs) are essential for the advancement of medical research, paving the way for the development and adoption of new treatments, and contributing to the evolution of healthcare. An essential factor for the success of a CT is the appropriate management of its Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm branded by heterogeneous technologies composed of smart ubiquitous objects that are seamlessly connected to the Internet. These objects are often deployed in open environments to provide innovative Sensor nodes play a major role in IoT environment, and each sensor is a peer to peer networking. Due to limited physical size, IoT sensor nodes must have light-weight authentication protocol. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a collection of various technical Abstract Software Defined Networking (SDN) architecture separates control plane and data plane, making network flexible and programmable. Since the large number of devices connected to the Internet of things (IoT) networks, the SDN-based network architecture

Blockchain business and its regulation
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As the blockchain industry becomes larger, a new decentralized financial ecosystem is now developing. New financial instruments, represented by terms like tokens, coins, and ICOs are introduced to finance projects on blockchain . Blockchain is a technology that makes it

Blockchain based Service: A Case Study on IBM Blockchain Services Hyperledger Fabric
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ABSTRACT IBM is one of the worlds leading American multinational technology company, always innovative and experimenting for new things with constant new trials and hands on different technologies. The company is recently focused its research and innovation on oneStart-ups in the blockchain context generate millions by means of initial coin offerings (ICOs). Many of these crowdfunding endeavours are very successful, others are not. However, despite the increasing investments in ICOs, there is still neither sufficient

BlockChain with IoT, an emergent routing scheme for smart agriculture
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Blockchain is an emerging field of study in a number of applications and domains. Especially when combine with Internet of Things (IoT) this become truly transformative, opening up new plans of action, improving engagement and revolutionizing many sectors

Distributed IoT attestation via blockchain
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We propose a novel attestation architecture for the Internet of Things (IoT). Our distributed attestation network (DAN) utilizes blockchain technology to store and share device information. We present the design of this new attestation architecture as well as a prototype

A Study on Electronic Voting System Using Private Blockchain .
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The development of digital technology has changed the lives of many people in terms of the velocity and convenience of completing tasks. This technology has also been applied to the process of voting, yet electronic voting is seldom used. The existing electronic voting

Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocols with Near-Optimal Throughput.
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One of the most significant challenges in the design of blockchain protocols is increasing their transaction-processing throughput. In this work we put forth for the first time a formal execution model that enables to express transaction throughput while supporting formal

Blockchainbased cross-organizational execution framework for dynamic integration of process collaborations
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Cross-organizational business processes involving multiple participants are choreographed, thus rely on mutual trust of collaborators or need to be coordinated by a central instance. Using Smart Contracts, business processes can be executed without a mutually trusted and

SkyEye: A Traceable Scheme for Blockchain .
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Many studies focus on the blockchain privacy protection. Unfortunately, the privacy protection brings regulatory issues (eg, countering money-laundering). Tracing users identities is a critical step in addressing blockchain regulatory issues. In this paper, we

Predictions for Blockchain in 2020
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During our 2019 ConVerge2Xcelerate (ConV2X) conference in Boston, we focused on the theme Proving Market Value with Pragmatic Innovation in Healthcare (see https://conv2x- 2019. eventcreate. com/). This year, along with Blockchain in Healthcare Today (BHTY)

Anonymous Transaction of Digital Currency Based on Blockchain .
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Blockchain can be seen as a shared database, and keep all data public and traceable. Everyone is accessible to the data recorded on the blockchain which brings the risk of privacy leakage. When digital currency transactions are performed on the blockchain users